ENVoY Research

Extensive research has been done on the ENVoY program of Classroom Management both internally and externally. If you have any questions about the ENVoY Research listed on this page, please contact us.

ENVoY Research Examples

As applied research demonstrates, the systematic use of non-verbal messages is the single most important skill any professional utilizes. By employing the full range of the non-verbal skills taught in ENVoY, we can manage with influence as opposed to power in any setting.

An Examination of Educational Non-Verbal Yardsticks Implementation (ENVoY) and the Impact on Teacher Efficacy

by Dr. Amy Joan Reed

(Principal, Ramsey Elementary)

Anoka-Hennepin Schools, 763.506.4001

Twitter: @AmyReedEDU


Classroom Management has long been recognized as a potential problem in the educational system that deserves serious attention, as the landscape of today’s classrooms continue to evolve and change as the students who are served become more culturally, academically, physically, socially, and emotionally diverse. The purpose of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Educational Non-Verbal Yardsticks (ENVoY) implementation (independent variable) to determine if this innovation has an impact on teacher efficacy in student engagement, classroom management, and instructional strategies (dependent variables). Additionally, the study confirmed whether or not teacher efficacy is viewed the same by all teaching staff across 24 elementary schools or if there are differences based on a teacher’s level of ENVoY certification and coaching. Site level ENVoY implementation was also examined to determine if teacher efficacy is impacted by the ENVoY certification level of the elementary school. To determine if a relationship exists between the variables, the district modified Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy (TES) survey was administered by the district Research, Evaluation and Testing department to all licensed staff at all 24 elementary schools in the district of study, with the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) selected as the statistical test for each research question. The sample size was 1,182 licensed elementary teachers. There was a statistically significant difference in teacher efficacy in the areas of student engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management for teachers who were highly implementing ENVoY and have achieved advanced certification. The data did not show a statistically significant difference between teacher efficacy in the areas of engagement, instruction, and classroom management and the number of ENVoY coaching visits that teachers participated in.

Finally, there was a statistically significant difference shown between the ENVoY certified and not certified schools. The results of this study specific to ENVoY implementation and teacher efficacy have implications for potential positive change on the individual level and organizational level. ENVoY is aligned to the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) as a provision in this act is aimed at supporting and growing local innovations—including evidence- based and place-based interventions developed by local leaders and educators. Additionally, the data may inform local and national school leaders to incorporate ENVoY as an innovative school reform or improvement strategy by measuring the impact it has on staff, students, and the entire school system.

Click here to read Dr. Reed’s Dissertation (SUMMARY)

Click here to read Dr. Reed’s Dissertation

Managing Class Conduct Nonverbally

By Daniel A. Domenech/School Administrator, April 2018

A look at ENVoY as a classroom management tool from the Executive Director of the national School Superintendent’s Association, Daniel Domenech. Pillager Elementary is an ENVoY Certified School in central MN with a corp of 12 Demonstration Teachers (10 elementary and 2 secondary).

Article: Managing Class Conduct Nonverbally

ENVoY Impact on Management by Denise Cooney

Research from Denise Cooney at Cedar Park Middle School. You can contact her at: denise@cooneys.us


The primary focus of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the use of ENVoY techniques upon the time on task of hard to manage students. The study of the effects of ENVoY began during the second year of training and implementation of ENVoY management techniques in the classroom of a sixth grade teacher. Data were collected over a period of seven months from observation data collected on a 6th grade case study student, observations from classroom video, evaluations from an ENVoY coach, analysis of disciplinary referrals, academic progress report grades, and a class survey. The results indicate minimal increase of time on task, or academic achievement for the hard to manage student. However, this study suggests there was an increase in overall class productivity and academic achievement, and a significant decrease in disciplinary referrals overall.

Click here to read entire report

A summary of Results from the TIMSS-R Video Study by Zoller, 2007

by Dr. Kendall Zoller

Michael has been honored by having several people receive their Ph.D. by doing research on his work on non-verbal communication. Doctor Kendall Zoller is one of those people. The following is an abstract of the work that he did, which he converted into a book.


This paper identifies and defines the nonverbal communication patterns of a subset of teachers from the TIMSS-R 1999 (Third International Mathematics and Science Study). The countries included in this study are Japan, the Czech Republic, Australia, the Netherlands and the United States. The nonverbal patterns of 25 teachers, five from each country (n=25) are identified based on a framework from Grinder (1997). Similarities and differences among the teachers within their country and across countries are discussed. Establishing and applying the framework developed by Grinder to all five countries allows for the generalization both within countries and across multi-national applications. This overview suggests possible teacher training in nonverbal skills to increase student attention and enhance student achievement. Drawing on the theoretical foundations of the structural, psychological, social, and cognitive linguists, the Grinder framework is supported. A compare and contrast discussion of the nonverbal patterns across the five countries is included. The nonverbal patterns of teachers are further discussed in relation to student achievement and cognition.

Lastly, a discussion introduces Nonverbal Communicative Intelligence (NCI); NCI is the mental operations for processing incoming verbal, visual, auditory, and kinesthetic (VAK) stimuli that interacts with the emotional, cognitive, and autonomic systems. NCI coordinates the input of VAK stimuli resulting in perceptions. Awareness of one’s perceptions leads one to purposefully adapt, shape, and select communication to convey the intention of the message while simultaneously enhancing and sustaining the rapport and understanding among peoples. Specifically, the skills of NCI include the ability to be systematic in the use of gesture, voice, breathing and other nonverbal signals. A teacher skilled in NCI has an ability to notice and react to the student’s nonverbal signals. They can forecast with some certainty the behavior of others based on the influence of their own nonverbal patterns.

–Kendall Von Zoller

Click here to read entire report

ENVoY Implementation and Results

by Mary Wolverton, Kari Rock, Jen Mares, and Amy Reed

ENVoY Minnesota Research. A striking PowerPoint that demonstrates how the implementation of the ENVoY program has helped to decrease the amount of dismissals and suspensions in school.

VIDEO: Anoka-Hennepin School District Board Meeting on ENVoY – January 26th, 2015

Anoka-Hennepin is the largest school district in Minnesota, this is a report on the dramatic effects of ENVoY. The referrals to the office decrease, the test scores increase, and the well-being of the student, staff, and community is raised. Jacki Brickman is the mentor coach and trainer.
Video on YouTube: ENVoY (Classroom Management) Research

Effectiveness of ENVoY: Classroom management model sponsored by Knowledge Arts Foundation
Results of University of Houston study, 2006-2007*

W. Robert Houston, Executive Director of the Institute for Urban Education, College of Education, University of Houston.
Does it work?  Yes.  In a study conducted by Dr. Robert Houston at the University of Houston Institute for Urban Education, ENVoY is shown to be effective in improving classroom environment for students.  Data from seven local schools were collected before, during and after the program, then analyzed at U of H.*
Click here to read the Abstract

Click here to read the entire report.

Click here to download the report cover page.

Research on Nonverbal Classroom Management (ENVoY), Developed by Michael Grinder

By Jenny Edwards, Ph.D., Fielding Graduate University

From 1994 to 1997, a longitudinal study was conducted on the effects of Cognitive CoachingSM (Costa & Garmston, 1994; 2002), Nonverbal Classroom Management (NVCM), also known as ENVoY (Grinder, 1993), and monthly dialogue groups on teacher implementation of Standards-Based Education, teacher efficacy, school culture, teacher conceptual development, teacher empowerment, and other areas.

Click Here to read the entire article

Research Evaluation Summary of the ENVoY Program

May 1998, Dr. Emily Garfield, Professor Emeritus, Stanford University.

It is evident that ENVoY training provides, expands, and/or reinforces good teaching skills. We see this reflected in the research findings, we hear this from the teachers, and we observe this in student behavior. Our challenge is how to persuade the educational community that it is important to incorporate non-verbal techniques routinely into the classroom.

Click Here to read the entire article

Windsor Unified School District’s ENVoY Research, 2005

As applied research demonstrates, the systematic use of non-verbal messages is the single most important skill any professional utilizes. By employing the full range of the non-verbal skills taught in ENVoY, we can manage with influence as opposed to power in any setting.

Windsor Unified School District’s ENVoY (Educational Non-verbal Yardsticks) Program has proven to be very effective. The following data was collected from both WUSD teachers and administrators. Data was studied by Dr. Emily Garfield of Stanford University and Grace Marie Curtin, ENVoY Coach/Trainer.

Click here to read the entire article

Owatonna Junior High School ENVoY Research
Complied by William A. Sommers, PhD. Principal (former), Owatonna Junior High School, Minnesota, 1999-2000

Two projects were started: one was based on the work of Bob Chadwick who teaches conflict resolution and consensus building strategies. These processes were used with staff, students, and community issues.

The second project was focused on the classroom. The new strategies used were based on the work of Michael Grinder who teaches nonverbal classroom management. We trained several staff in the ENVoY program. The principal has been a trainer for ENVoY.

The results at the end of the year were a 25% reduction in suspensions and a 35% reduction in referrals to the office

Click here to read the entire article 

Action Research Summary, August 2009
Using ENVoY Non-Verbal Classroom Management to Improve Student Behavior, Academic Performance, and Teacher Satisfaction

Summary of August 2009 presentation to all HISD administrators by principals of two K-5 schools in Houston ISD (Joseph Rhoads Elementary and Lucile Gregg Elementary) reporting on a three-year Action Research project on ENVoY at their schools.

  • Disciplinary referrals dropped (68% reduction at Rhoads and 58% at Gregg).
  • Test scores went up (charts attached with specific scores pre- and post-ENVoY).
  • Teacher survey data showed favorable perceptions and attitudes regarding ENVoY.

Click here to read the abstract.
Click here to read the entire report.
Click here to view the “before” and “after” reading and math scores.

Classroom Strategies Foundation. Information for St. Landry Parish, Louisiana, School Board, 2002

The following pages list the Top Ten Results of Classroom Management training-plus-coaching as observed in St. Landry Parish, Louisiana, in 2002. Similar results are reported from a variety of school districts, such as Minneapolis, Clask County and Issaquah (Washington State districts), Salt Lake City and Denver.

Click here to read the entire article.

Classroom Evaluation Form DOWNLOAD: Classroom Scan (A Pre and Post Assessment) by Dr. Bob Houston and Mary Yenik

“Selective Mutism – A Strategy” by Jean Pope, 2005

The following is research done for a masters degree. Jean Pope, a graduate of Michael Grinder’s programs, reports on her work with a student who displayed traits of selective mutism.

Click here to read the entire article.


Classroom Management That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Every Teacher

By Dr. Marzano leading educational researcher
It appeared in Educational Leadership (ASCD) September, 2003.”Today, we know more about teaching than we ever have before. Research has shown us that teachers’ actions in their classroom have twice the impact on student achievement as do school policies regarding curriculum, assessment, staff collegiality, and community involvement. We also know that one of the classroom teacher’s most important jobs is managing the classroom effectively. …the results …from 134 separate meta-analyses. Of all the variables, classroom management had the largest effect on student achievement. (page 1).”

“Don’t Leave Relationships to Chance. Teacher-student relationships provide an essential foundation for effective classroom management – and classroom management is the key to high student achievement. (page 13)”

Click Here to read the entire article

History of ENVoY – Read the entire article

Any teacher who learns the Seven Gems and uses them consistently will have more learning going on in their classroom.  And the students will know the teacher cares…


  1. Interview with Dr. Mary Yonek
  2. Interview with Dr. Gloria Pappas
  3. Interview with Woody Howard. Associate Principal at Chinook Elementary School in the Vancouver School District.

All of MGA’s programs are completely customizable to your situation or district. Call us at (360) 687-3238 to see how MGA can design a program so that you can get the results you want without resorting to power.

ENVoY and A Healthy Classroom in the News

Keep an Eye on the Hand – Non verbal communication is part of a Leader’s Arsenal. Kendall Zoller PHD

“On Good Authority Maintaining Discipline Is Key to Students’ Success, but New Teachers Rarely Learn Classroom Management”
Jay Mathews, Washington Post Staff Writer, Washington Post December 19, 2000

NET GAIN: With fits and starts, our intrepid reporter learns what it’s like to learn online
Jay Mathews, Washington Post Staff Writer, Washington Post October 15, 2000; Page W18

Teachers study discipline
”…I want to manage my classroom in a way to have more teaching time”
Jacqueline Cochran
/ Daily World Staff Writer, Posted on June 9, 2002